【參考資料】

1. 糖尿病的世界趨勢
IDF - 2015 Diabetes Atla.

2. 引發糖尿病的食物排行
Ley, S. H., et al. (2014). "Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies." Lancet 383(9933): 1999-2007.

3. 戰勝糖尿病:馬希爾島的經驗
Davis, Brenda (2008). Defeating Diabetes: Lessons From the Marshall Islands. Today’s Dietitian. Vol. 10 No. 8 P. 24

4. 素食預防糖尿病 (台灣研究)
Chiu, T. H., et al. (2014). "Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores: dietary composition, prevalence of diabetes and IFG." PLoS One 9(2): e88547.

5. 素食預防糖尿病 (美國研究)
Tonstad, S., et al. (2013). "Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2." Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23(4): 292 - 299.

6. 低脂純素飲食,可改善第二型糖尿病的血糖控制、心血管疾病危險因子
Barnard, N. D., et al. (2006). "A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes." Diabetes Care 29(8): 1777-1783.

7. 逆轉心血管疾病
Ornish, D., et al. (1990). "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial." Lancet 336(8708): 129-133.

8. 素食對糖尿病的預防與治療
Kahleova, H. and T. Pelikanova (2015). "Vegetarian Diets in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes." J Am Coll Nutr 34(5): 448-458.

【延伸閱讀】

豆腐補鈣,鹽滷、石膏哪種好

你所不知道的潛在危機~牛奶

今天的鈣夠了嗎?

蔬食鈣高尚

素食者是否該喝牛奶

【參考資料】

1. 喝牛奶增加死亡率、骨折率 (瑞典研究):
Michaëlsson K, Wolk A, Langenskiöld S, Basu S, Warensjö Lemming E, Melhus H, Byberg L. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies. BMJ. 2014 Oct 28;349:g6015. 

2. 青少年喝奶量與老年時的骨折率:
Feskanich D, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Frazier AL, Willett WC. Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Jan;168(1):54-60. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.3821.

3. 其他喝牛奶與骨折的研究:
Bolland MJ, Leung W, Tai V, Bastin S, Gamble GD, Grey A, Reid IR. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review. BMJ. 2015 Sep 29;351:h4580. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4580. Review.

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Kanis JA, Orav EJ, Staehelin HB, Kiel DP, Burckhardt P, Henschkowski J, Spiegelman D, Li R, Wong JB, Feskanich D, Willett WC. Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Apr;26(4):833-9.

4. D-半乳糖:
Hao L, Huang H, Gao J, Marshall C, Chen Y, Xiao M. The influence of gender, age and treatment time on brain oxidative stress and memory impairment induced by d­galactose in mice. Neurosci Lett 2014;571C:45­9.

Cui X, Wang L, Zuo P, Han Z, Fang Z, Li W, et al. D-­galactose ­caused life shortening in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica is associated with oxidative stress. Biogerontology 2004;5:317­25.

5. IGF-1相關:
Cao Y, Nimptsch K, Shui IM, Platz EA, Wu K, Pollak MN, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL. Prediagnostic plasma IGFBP-1, IGF-1 and risk of prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2015 May 15;136(10):2418-26. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29295. Epub
2014 Nov 10.

Ma J, Giovannucci E, Pollak M, Chan JM, Gaziano JM, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ. Milk intake, circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, and risk of colorectal cancer in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93:1330–6.

Qin LQ, He K, Xu JY. Milk consumption and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I level: a systematic literature review. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60(Suppl 7):330–40.

Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-I but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men. Br J Cancer 2000;83:95–7.

6. 攝護腺癌:
Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Vatten LJ, Norat T. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan;101(1):87-117.

7. 牛乳與便秘:
Andiran F, Dayi S, Mete E. Cows milk consumption in constipation and anal fissure in infants and young children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2003 Jul;39(5):329-31.

Irastorza I, Ibañez B, Delgado-Sanzonetti L, Maruri N, Vitoria JC. Cow's-milk-free diet as a therapeutic option in childhood chronic constipation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Aug;51(2):171-6. 

Carroccio A, Mansueto P, Morfino G, D'Alcamo A, Di Paola V, Iacono G, Soresi M, Scerrino G, Maresi E, Gulotta G, Rini G, Bonventre S. Oligo-antigenic diet in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. Evidence for a relationship between food hypersensitivity and anal fissures. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 May;108(5):825-32.

Dehghani SM, Ahmadpour B, Haghighat M, Kashef S, Imanieh MH, Soleimani M. The Role of Cow's Milk Allergy in Pediatric Chronic Constipation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Iran J Pediatr. 2012 Dec;22(4):468-74.

8. 牛乳與青春痘:

Melnik BC. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2011;67:131-45.

9. 鈣質吸收率:
Weaver CM, Plawecki KL. Dietary calcium: adequacy of a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;59(5 Suppl):1238S-1241S. Review. 

Weaver CM, Proulx WR, Heaney R. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):543S-548S. Review. 

10.溫室氣體排放:
http://www.fao.org/agriculture/lead/themes0/climate/emissions/en/

Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!